Glossary of Board Terms
A penalty levied by a government official, such as a Forest Service District Manager, against a person who has contravened forest practices legislation.
A BC government review of certain types of legal determinations. It can lead to confirmation, cancellation or variation of the determination, or to a new determination.
An opinion arrived at when non-compliance is significant, sufficiently pervasive or is of such magnitude as to warrant an overall negative conclusion.
ADVERSELY AFFECTED PERSON
A person, company or party that the Forest Practices Board believes could be significantly and directly adversely affected by an analyst's review, or by a proposed Board report. A significant effect could, for example, be economic or related to employment or reputation.
The holder of an agreement under British Columbia's Forest Act or Range Act.
Plant species that have established outside their natural distribution.
ALLOWABLE ANNUAL CUT (AAC)
The allowable rate of timber harvest from a specified area of land. The Chief Forester sets AACs for timber supply areas (TSAs) and tree farm licences (TFLs) in accordance with Section 8 of the Forest Act.
The amount of dry forage required by one animal unit for one month. The animal unit is usually defined as a 450-kilogram cow, with calf.
Under the Forest and Range Practices Act, administrative penalties and certain plan approvals/rejections can be appealed to the Forest Appeals Commission. Commission decisions can, in certain circumstances, be appealed to British Columbia Supreme Court.
The first stage after receipt of a written complaint, to determine whether the matter complained of is within the Board's jurisdiction to investigate. The Chair may also examine reasons to refuse to investigate during the assessment stage.
Forest Practices Board audits determine compliance with the provincial forestry legislation based on audit criteria derived from the Forest and Range Practices Act and related regulations. Audits by the Forest Practices Board are conducted in accordance with the auditing standards developed by the Board, which are consistent with generally accepted auditing standards.
All land surface not covered by vegetation, rock, or litter.
BARE MINERAL SOIL
Same as bare ground.
BASIC SILVICULTURAL PRACTICES
Consists of: maintenance of the productivity of forest sites; restocking of denuded forest lands with commercial tree species within three years for areas west of the Coast Range and five years for areas in the Interior; and, protection against damage by fire, insects and diseases to predetermined standards.
Harvesting methods and silviculture operations, including: seed collection, site preparation, artificial and natural regeneration, brushing, spacing and stand tending, and other operations for the purpose of establishing a free-growing crop of trees of a commercially valuable species. Basic silviculture may be a requirement of a regulation, a pre-harvest silviculture prescription or a silviculture prescription.
BC TIMBER SALES PROGRAM (BCTS)
An independent organization within the BC Ministry of Forests and Range, created to develop Crown timber for auction. BC Timber Sales (BCTS) was founded in 2003 with a mandate to provide the cost and price benchmarks for timber harvested from public land in British Columbia. Through 12 Business Areas and an operational presence in 33 locations, BCTS manages some 20 percent of the provincial Crown allowable annual cut.
BIODIVERSITY (BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY)
The diversity of plants, animals, and other living organisms in all their forms and levels of organization, including genes, species, ecosystems, and the evolutionary and functional processes that link them.
BIOGEOCLIMATIC CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM
A hierarchical classification system of ecosystems that integrates regional, local and chronological factors and combines climatic, vegetation and site factors.
Part of the biogeoclimatic ecosystem classification system. Recognized biogeoclimactic units are a synthesis of climate, vegetation and soil data and are defined as “classes of geographically related ecosystems that are distributed within a vegetationally inferred climatic space.”
A geographic area having similar patterns of energy flow, vegetation and soils, as a result of a broadly homogenous macroclimate.
The use of living organisms, such as predators, parasitoids, and pathogens, to control invasive plants.
Uprooting by the wind. Also refers to a tree or trees so uprooted.
BLUE LIST SPECIES
Species of special concern (formerly called “vulnerable”) in British Columbia. These species are not immediately threatened, but are of concern because of characteristics that make them particularly sensitive to human activities or natural events.
A class of wetland characterized by a thick layer of sphagnum-based peat. It receives its water primarily from direct precipitation. Bog waters tend to be acidic and nutrient-poor.
A controlled burn, where the fire is intentionally ignited and allowed to proceed over a cutblock within well‐defined boundaries, for the purpose of reducing fuel hazard after logging, or for site preparation before planting.
That part of leaf and twig growth of shrubs, woody vines, and trees available for animal consumption, or, the act of consuming browse (browsing).
The act of applying long range strategic directions of an organization toward the development of shorter-term (generally annual), work plans, budgets and associated resource allocation.
A yarding system employing winches, blocks and cables.
The percentage of ground covered by a vertical projection of the outermost perimeter of the natural spread of foliage of plants. Small openings within the canopy are included, and coverage may exceed 100 percent.
The stream banks and stream bed formed by fluvial processes.
The bottom of the stream below the usual water surface. Beds contain sediments deposited by moving water, such as rocks, sand, gravel and sediment.
The application of herbicides to control or eradicate plant species.
A Forest Practices Board conclusion arrived at when all forestry activities subject to audit are in compliance with legislation in all significant respects. The statement "in all significant respects" recognizes that there may be minor, or insignificant, instances of non-compliance.
An area of forestland from which all merchantable trees have recently been harvested.
The process of removing all trees in a stand, large and small, in one cutting operation.
The average weather conditions of a place over many years.
The drainage area above the most downstream point of diversion on a stream for which the water is for human consumption, and which is licensed under the Water Act for (i) a waterworks purpose, or (ii) a domestic purpose if the licence is held by, or is subject to, the control of a water users’ community as incorporated under the Water Act.
A matter brought to the Forest Practices Board’s attention by virtue of formal written complaint. It includes information specified in the "Notice of Complaint."
The process by which the Board determines whether or not it must investigate a complaint.
During the course of a Forest Practices Board audit, when the auditor finds that practices meet Code requirements. (See “clean opinion”).
A matter brought to the Board's attention, but not filed as a formal complaint.
Forest Practices Board decisions based on investigation findings and the substance of the complaint (see section 185). Conclusions often relate to whether a complaint was confirmed (or substantiated). Essentially, a conclusion can be that issues in the complaint were:
An action, decision, omission, etc., by a government official carried out while exercising a decision-making power or responsibility under forest practices legislation.
All written and oral dealings with the Forest Practices Board by the public, related to a forest matter or the Board’s complaint process.
A violation of a provision of the Forest and Range Practices Act or other legislation.
A ditch excavated across the road at an angle and at a sufficient depth, with armouring as appropriate, to divert both road surface water and ditch water off or across the road.
Land that is owned by the government of Canada or the province of British Columbia.
Crown land included within the boundaries of a range district, but does not include Crown land that is subject to a lease issued under the Land Act.
An invasive plant management practice that manipulates plant populations by cultivation, pulling, cutting, or other hand‐applied techniques.
Defined in legislation as a specific area of land identified on a forest development plan, or in a licence to cut, road permit, or Christmas tree permit, within which timber is to be, or has been, harvested.
The face of an excavated bank required to lower the natural ground line to the desired road profile.
Measures taken to stabilize roads and logging trails during periods of inactivity, which include control of drainage, removal of sidecast where necessary, and re-establishment of vegetation in preparation for permanent deactivation.
DESIRED PLANT COMMUNITY
A plant community that produces the kind, proportion and amount of vegetation necessary for meeting or exceeding the land use plan or activity objectives established for an ecological site.
An act, omission, decision, procedure, levy, order, or other action made or taken by an official under authority of the Forest and Range Practices Act or other legislation.
A specific plan outlining harvesting, road construction, protection, and silviculture activities over the short-term (often five years) in accordance with the approved forest management plan.
The scattering of plant seeds or movement of an animal to a new habitat.
The manager of a Forest Service district office, with responsibilities as outlined in the Forest Act, Ministry of Forests Act, and Range Act.
Organisms together with their physical environment, forming an interacting system, inhabiting an identifiable space.
Any indigenous species, or sub‐species, threatened with imminent extinction throughout all, or most of its range.
The sum of all external conditions that affect an organism or community and influence its development or existence.
An area of land where water drains away for brief, transient periods following an influx of moisture such as from localized snowmelt or heavy precipitation.
Elimination of every individual plant of an invasive plant population, including all viable seeds, and vegetative propagules.
A forest stand or forest type in which relatively small (10-20 years) age differences exist between individual trees. Even-aged stands are often the result of fire, or a harvesting method such as clearcutting or the shelterwood method.
An area fenced to exclude animals.
Wetlands with organic soils and a water table near the surface. Soils are decomposed sedge and non-sphagnum moss peats. Waters are near neutral in pH and are nutrient rich. Vegetation is primarily sedges, grasses and reeds, but some shrubs and scattered trees may occur.
A deduction of fact made by the Forest Practices Board based on information obtained during an investigation. If no inference is required (because, for example, no one disputes a matter), the matter is a simple fact, not a finding.
A hazard based on physical fuel characteristics, such as fuel arrangement, fuel load, condition of herbaceous vegetation, and presence of elevated fuels.
Incorporates 1) the probability or chance of fire starting, and 2) the projected intensity or rate of spread once a fire ignites.
Lakes, streams, and ponds that have resident fish populations.
Lowlands adjoining streams; frequently flooded during spring freshets or extreme rainfall events.
Pertaining to, or produced by, the action of a stream or river.
Browse and herbage that is available and may provide food for grazing animals.
The proportion of current year’s forage or browse production that is consumed by grazing animals.
As defined by the Forest Practices Code of British Columbia Act includes all of the following: forest land, whether Crown land or private land; Crown range; Crown land or private land that is predominantly maintained in one or more successive stands of trees, successive crops of forage, or wilderness.
FOREST AND RANGES PRACTICES ACT (FRPA)
The Forest and Range Practices Act and its regulations govern the activities of forest and range licensees in BC. Replaced the Forest Practices Code of British Columbia Act.
FOREST APPEALS COMMISSION
The independent tribunal that hears appeals from administrative review decisions made under the Forest Practices Code of British Columbia Act (the Code).
FOREST DEVELOPMENT PLAN
An operational plan implemented under the Code to provides the public and government agencies with information about the location of proposed roads and cutblocks for harvesting timber over a period of at least five years. The plan specifies measures that will be carried out to protect certain forest resources prescribed by regulation, and must be consistent with higher level plans, such as Land and Resource Management Plans (LRMPs). Upon introduction of the FRPA, which replaced the Code, Forest Stewardship Plans became the required planning document.
A forest licence allows orderly timber harvest over a portion of a sustained yield management unit, and the timely reforestation of harvested areas according to a strategic resource management plan prepared by the Forest Service for each timber supply area. The licence has a term of 15 to 20 years, generally replaceable every five years (some are non-replaceable) and operating areas that shift over time. Once an area is harvested and reforested the licensee moves to another part of the timber supply area. A forest licence specifies an annual allowable cut, requires a management and working plan, and specified management activities.
FOREST PRACTICES BOARD
An independent watchdog for sound practices in British Columbia established under the Forest Practices Code of British Columbia Act. The Board reports to the government and public about compliance with the Forest and Range Practices Act (FRPA) and the achievement of its intent.
Renewal of a tree crop by either natural or artificial means.
A defined term in the Forest Practices Code of British Columbia Act meaning resources and values associated with forests and range including, without limitation, timber, water, wildlife, fisheries, recreation, botanical forest products, forage, and biological diversity.
FOREST STEWARDSHIP PLAN (FSP)
A key planning element in the Forest and Range Practices Act framework and the only plan subject to public review and comment and government approval. In FSPs licensees are required to identify results and/or strategies consistent with government objectives for values such as water, wildlife and soils. These results and strategies must be measurable and once approved are subject to government enforcement. FSPs identify areas within which road construction and harvesting will occur but are not required to show the specific locations of future roads and cutblocks. FSPs can have a term of up to five years.
An established seedling of an acceptable commercial species that is free from growth-inhibiting brush, weed, and excessive tree competition; or young trees that are as high as or higher than competing brush, with 1 m of free-growing space around their tops.
A stand of healthy trees of a commercially valuable species, the growth of which is not impeded by competition from plants, shrubs, or other trees.
The amount of available and potentially combustible material, usually expressed as tons per hectare.
The planned manipulation and/or reduction of living or dead forest fuels for forest management and other land use objectives (such as hazard reduction, silvicultural purposes, wildlife habitat improvement) by prescribed fire, mechanical, chemical or biological means and/or changing stand structure and species composition.
An audit of forest practices for performance under all of the requirements of appropriate legislation.
GEOTEXTILE FILTER FABRIC
A synthetic material placed on the flat, under road fill, with the primary functions of layer separation, aggregate confinement, and distribution of load.
A channel or miniature valley cut by concentrated, non-continuous runoff such as during snowmelt or following heavy rains.
The place where an organism lives and/or the conditions of that environment including the soil, vegetation, water, and food.
Any manipulation of habitat that improves its value and ability to meet specified requirements of one or more species.
Management of the forest or range to create environments, which provide habitats (food, shelter) to meet the needs of particular organisms.
A document listing the stands to be harvested per year or period, usually showing types and intensities of harvests for each stand, as well as a timetable for regenerating currently non-productive areas.
The practice of felling and removing trees or the removal of dead or damaged trees from an area.
An aerial harvesting system whereby logs are removed vertically from the forest and flown to a roadside landing or drop zone.
Non-woody vegetation, such as grasses, sedges, reeds and forbs.
A chemical that kills or regulates growth of plant species or groups of species.
HIGHER LEVEL PLAN
A resource management plan that is established as legally binding by a written government Order (such as a Land and Resource Management Plan). The objective applies to a resource management zone, landscape unit, sensitive area, recreation site, recreation trail, or interpretive forest site. Higher level plans give direction to operational plans.
A partial harvest removing only the most valuable tree species, or trees of desirable size and quality, without regard for the condition of the residual stand.
Formation of raised mounds of soil in wetlands from trampling by large animals.
The properties, distribution, and circulation of water and snow.
Plant species, of the original vegetation, that increase in relative amount due to overgrazing.
A written or oral contact to the Forest Practices Board in which no action is requested of the Board, except to send information about the Board's complaint function.
Individuals and agencies without responsibilities under Parts 3-6 of the Code who/which may be affected by either an investigation or potential conclusions or recommendations (see section 182). For example, other levels of government (including municipal, federal and First Nations), interest representatives (e.g., Labour organizations, environmental groups, local non-government organizations) or individuals.
Plant species that were absent in undisturbed portions of the original vegetation of a specific range site and will invade following disturbance or continued heavy grazing.
The arrival of an organism in an area where it was not formerly represented.
A detailed examination, usually involving a site visit plus interviews and file searches, with all involved licensees, district and/or regional offices of government agencies, the complainant and others.
A review of a decision by a court, authorized and conducted under the Judicial Review Procedure Act, primarily concerned with the fairness of the procedures used to make a decision, whether or not the decision maker was acting within his or her jurisdiction, and errors of law.
The Forest Practices Board's authority to investigate. To be within the Board's jurisdiction, the matter complained of must have happened after June 15, 1995, and concern a party's compliance with the requirements of Parts 2 to 5 of the Forest and Range Practices Act and the regulations, the appropriateness of government enforcement under Part 6, compliance with Parts 2 and 3 of the Wildfire Act, and the appropriateness of government enforcement under Part 3.
Fuels that provide vertical continuity between the surface fuels and crown fuels in a forest stand, thus contributing to the ease of torching and crowning.
LAND AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLAN (LRMP)
A strategic, multi-agency, integrated resource plan at the sub-regional level. It is based on the principles of enhanced public involvement, consideration of all resource values, consensus-based decision making, and resource sustainability.
The fundamental characteristics of a specific geographic area, including its biological composition and physical environment.
Landscape units are planning areas delineated on the basis of topographic or geographic features. Typically they cover a watershed or series of watersheds, and range in size from 5,000 to 100,000 hectares.
The process by which decisions are made on future land uses over extended time periods, that are deemed to best serve the general welfare.
see riparian leave strip.
An audit of forest practices for performance under some, but not all, of the requirements of the Code.
LOCAL RESOURCE USE PLAN (LRUP)
A plan approved by the district manager for a portion of the provincial forest that provides area-specific resource management objectives for integrating resource use in the area. These plans are prepared pursuant to Section 4 (c) of the Ministry of Forests Act.
Stands or forest types that require similar management practices and can be grouped for treatment as a management unit.
MANAGEMENT DIRECTION AND CONTROL
Where management asserts its authority to ensure those elements of an organization (including its resources, systems, processes, culture, structures and tasks) support people in the achievement of the organization's objectives.
A management plan or management and working plan approved under a tree farm licence, woodlot licence, pulpwood agreement or forest licence. Contains inventory and other resource data.
The outer portion of a riparian management area situated adjacent to a stream, lake, or wetland and established to conserve and maintain the productivity of aquatic and riparian ecosystems when harvesting is permitted.
MANUAL TREE TOPPER
A professional climber who ascends trees to prepare them for helicopter harvest as part of the process of single stem harvesting.
Wetlands with mineral soils and fluctuating water levels. Nutrient-rich waters have neutral to basic pH. Cattails, reeds, sedges and grasses form the emergent vegetation.
The maximum allowable stand density above which stands must be spaced to a target density of well-spaced acceptable stems to achieve free-growing status.
Control of invasive plants by physical and mechanical means such as plowing, tilling, chain sawing, and weed whacking.
the process of harvesting timber using mechanized means.
MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING (MOU)
An agreement between ministers defining the roles and responsibilities of each ministry in relation to the other or others, with respect to matters over which the ministers have concurrent jurisdiction.
MINERAL CLAIMS AND TENURES
A legal title to the minerals on, or under, a specified area of land.
The ministers of the three resource agencies involved in administration of the Code.
Plant species that are part of the original flora of an area.
see adverse opinion.
NET AREA TO BE REFORESTED (NAR)
The area on which the licensee is responsible for establishing a free-growing crop of trees.
One that appears to involve a matter that is outside the Forest Practices Board's jurisdiction.
A species that is not native to the region in which it is found.
NOT SIGNIFICANT NON-COMPLIANCE
When the auditor, upon reaching a non-compliance conclusion, determines that a non- compliance event, or the accumulation and consequences of a number of non-compliance events, is not significant and is not considered worth reporting.
Any weed designated by the Weed Control Regulations in the Weed Control Act and identified on a Regional District noxious weed control list.
NTD 4 ECOSYSTEMS
An ecosystem with a high natural historical fire frequency.
Under the Code, an official means a designated forest, environment or energy and mines official.
A forest that contains live and dead trees of various sizes, species, composition, and age class structure. Old-growth forests, as part of a slowly changing but dynamic ecosystem, include climax forests but not sub-climax or mid-seral forests. The age and structure of old growth varies significantly by forest type and from one biogeoclimatic zone to another.
Forest Practices Code of British Columbia Act states that within the context of area-specific management guidelines, operational plans detail the logistics for development. Methods, schedules, and responsibilities for accessing, harvesting, renewing and protecting the resource are set out to enable site-specific operations to proceed. Operational plans include forest development plans, logging plans, range-use plans, silviculture prescriptions and stand management prescriptions.
OPPORTUNITY TO BE HEARD
An opportunity for a holder of a licence to review evidence and present its position to a statutory decision-maker with respect to a supposed contravention, before a decision on the contravention is made.
How a group of people working in pursuit of objectives is organized.
To shape the road surface to direct water away from the cut slope side of the road.
Placing road construction fill over organic soil, stumps and other plant materials, corduroy or geotextiles, any of which is required to support the fill.
That portion of the trees in a forest of more than one storey forming the upper or uppermost canopy layer.
A general term referring to silvicultural systems other than clearcutting, in which only selected trees are harvested. Partial cutting systems include seed tree, shelterwood, selection, and clearcutting with reserves.
The Ministry of Forests and Range (MFR), Ministry of Agriculture and Lands (MAL) and the Ministry of Environment (MOE).
All those directly involved in a complaint including complainants, subjects, parties and adversely affected persons, but not other interested persons.
PARTY (to a complaint)
The government or the agreement holder(s) under the Forest Act or Range Act. This may also include ministries of agreement holders not named as subjects of the complaint, but added as parties because the Board believes they may be affected by, or involved in, an investigation.
A condition where the soil has eroded from around individual plants leaving them on small pedestals of soil. Sometimes results from frost heaving.
PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT FRAMEWORK
A framework by which objectives of a program are identified, targets are declared, and specific processes are applied to monitor and measure attainment of these objectives and targets.
Created by Bill 47, 1997, but is not yet in force. It is an administrative penalty in addition to a contravention penalty, imposed where the licensee did not exercise due diligence.
A deeply-rooted plant deriving its moisture from subsurface sources.
Any disturbance that is concentrated within a small area, such as at a gate or stream crossing.
General statements of principles that guide government administration in the management of public affairs. They normally do not have the force of law. Policies include statements on how a government authority is to achieve its goals and objectives with regard to a specific subject area or class of subject areas, e.g., a policy for the process and recording of determinations.
Knowledgeable application of fire to a specific unit of land to meet predetermined resource management objectives.
All activities that interrupt the dispersal of new invasive plant species into a geographic area or specific location where they were not previously found.
PROPER FUNCTIONING CONDITION
The ability of a stream, river, wetland, or lake, and its riparian area, to withstand: normal peak flood events without experiencing accelerated soil loss; channel movement or bank movement; filter runoff; and, store and safely release water (Forest Practices Code definition).
Deep hoof prints left by large ungulates on moist, fine-textured soils of streams and wetlands.
When significant non-compliance is found in an audit, but it is neither pervasive nor of a sufficient magnitude to warrant an overall negative conclusion.
QUALITY ASSURANCE FRAMEWORK
A framework for a program that ensures efficient and effective processes are utilized to ensure that the program is in compliance with statutory requirements. These processes could include inspections, monitoring and audits.
A decision made by a government official or tribunal which involves the application of policy to a particular set of facts requiring the exercise of discretion and the application of the principles of natural justice.
Any land supporting vegetation that is suitable for grazing.
Any practice, treatment or structure designed to achieve plant community, production and integrated resource management goals.
Crown range and land subject to an agreement under section 18 of the Range Act.
RANGE STEWARDSHIP PLAN
An operational plan under the Forest and Range Practices Act that may be prepared in place of a range use plan by those who have demonstrated a level of competence in range management. This plan is less prescriptive, provides options for more flexibility for experienced operators, and encourages innovation.
RANGE USE PLAN
An operational plan that includes requirements specified by the Forest and Range Practices Act and allows a Range Act agreement holder to graze livestock or cut hay on Crown range.
A relatively homogeneous portion of a stream that has a sequence of repeating structural characteristics.
RED LIST SPECIES
Indigenous species that are extirpated, endangered, or threatened in British Columbia.
The process by which applications for permits, licences, etc., made to one government agency by an individual or industry, are given to another agency for review and comment.
The re-establishment of trees on denuded forest land by natural or artificial means, such as planting and seeding.
The second level of planning in the Ministry of Forests and Range hierarchical planning system. The regional forestry plan contains forest management alternatives based on a detailed analysis of timber supply within the region. Regional priorities for integrated use are identified and taken into account in setting production goals for timber, range, and forest recreation.
To an agreement holder are orders to do work to remedy a Forest and Range Practices Act contravention, including any damage done to the land.
(see section 182) The Board must, prior to publishing a report or recommendation, consider whether or not it may adversely affect a party or person. The Board must give any affected party or person the opportunity to review, rebut or clarify the information before the Board publishes its report.
An area of forestland that, by law or policy, is not available for harvesting. Areas of land and water set aside for ecosystem protection, outdoor and tourism values, preservation of rare species, gene pool, wildlife protection etc.
The inner portion of a riparian management area situated adjacent to a stream, lake, or wetland and established to conserve and maintain the productivity of aquatic and riparian ecosystems when harvesting is not permitted.
Any government agency, ministry, or department having jurisdiction over a resource that may be affected by a forest or range practice.
A small channel created on steep slopes by water erosion.
An area of land adjacent to a stream, river, lake or wetland that contains vegetation that, due to the presence of water, is distinctly different from the vegetation of adjacent upland areas.
The banks and adjacent areas of a stream, river, lake or wetland. It contains vegetation that, due to the presence of water, is distinctly different from the vegetation of adjacent upland areas.
River, stream, lake or wetland.
RIPARIAN LEAVE STRIP
An unharvested border of forest around a riparian feature.
RIPARIAN MANAGEMENT AREA (RMA)
Defined in the Forest and Range Practices Act as an area described under Division 3 [Riparian areas] of Part 4 [Practice requirements], that consists of a riparian management zone and a riparian reserve zone.
RIPARIAN MANAGEMENT ZONE
Defined in the Forest and Range Practices Act as an area described under Division 3 [Riparian areas] of Part 4 [Practice requirements], that (a) is a portion of the riparian management area, and (b) is established to:
i) conserve the fish, wildlife habitat, biodiversity and the water values of the riparian management zone, and
ii) protect the riparian reserve zone, if any, within the riparian management area.
Same as riparian area.
The probability that an adverse effect (injury, disease, or death) will occur under exposure to a specific agent.
The estimation of the likelihood of loss or damage, and the magnitude of the consequence should the loss or damage occur. In forestry, risk assessment includes the process of identifying the degree of risk that timber harvesting and road building imposes on adjacent and downslope social, economic, and forest resource values. The severity of each potential hazard and the magnitude of the potential consequences that correspond to each hazard provide the overall risk associated with harvesting a site.
The "art" of weighing the assessed risks (i.e., the likelihood of a potential loss to an environmental, social or economic value) against the expected benefits that may be gained from that action or decision.
Consists of measures to stabilize roads and logging trails during periods of commercial harvesting inactivity. It includes controlling drainage, removing side-cast where necessary, and re-establishing vegetation for permanent deactivation.
Property or goods saved from damage or destruction.
Logging operations specifically designed to remove damaged timber (dead or in poor condition) and yield a wood product. Often carried out following fire, insect attack, or windthrow.
Means any visually sensitive area or scenic landscape identified through a visual landscape inventory or planning process carried out or approved by a Ministry of Forests and Range district manager.
Wet areas, normally not flowing, arising from an underground water source.
Refers to species or communities that are eventually replaced by other species or communities through succession.
Any stage of development of an ecosystem from a disturbed, unvegetated state to a climax plant community.
SHALLOW OPEN WATER
A wetland with intermittently or permanently flooded areas where water depth does not exceed two metres. These open waters, commonly called ponds, have little or no emergent vegetation. Soils may be organic or mineral.
SHELTERWOOD SILVICULTURAL SYSTEM
A silvicultural system in which trees are removed in a series of cuts designed to achieve a new even-aged stand under the shelter of remaining trees.
Moving excavated material onto the downslope side of a temporary access structure, excavated or bladed trail, or landing during its construction.
Where the auditor, after reaching a non-compliance conclusion, assesses that significant harm has occurred or is beginning to occur to persons or the environment as a result of the non-compliance event or condition. A significant breach can also result from the cumulative effect of a number of non-compliance events or conditions. Should a possible significant breach be identified, the auditor must conduct tests to determine its extent. If it is clear from the tests that a significant breach has occurred, the auditor must then immediately advise the Board, the person being audited, and the three ministers.
When the auditor assesses that the non-compliance event or condition, or the accumulation of a number of non-compliance events or conditions, is significant.
The art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health and quality of forests and woodlands. Silviculture entails the manipulation of forest and woodland vegetation in stands and on landscapes to meet the diverse needs and values of landowners and society on a sustainable basis.
A site-specific operational plan that describes the forest management objectives for an area to be harvested (a cutblock). Silviculture prescriptions examined in Board audits are required to describe the management activities proposed to maintain the inherent productivity of the site, accommodate all resource values including biological diversity, and produce a free growing stand capable of meeting stated management objectives. Silviculture prescriptions must be consistent with higher level plans that encompass the area to which the prescription applies.
A site‐specific plan that is required in place of a silviculture prescription as of December 17, 2002, except where there is already an existing silviculture prescription. The site plan contains some of the same elements as a silviculture prescription and is designed to identify resource values and define what a free‐growing stand will be on that site. However, it is not an operational plan under the Forest and Range Practices Act (FRPA) and does not require review or approval by government to be implemented.
SMALL BUSINESS FOREST ENTERPRISE PROGRAM (SBFEP) - Now replaced by BC Timber Sales Program (BCTS)
A Ministry of Forests and Range program that enables registered individuals or companies to acquire rights to harvest Crown timber under a timber sale licence. The Ministry of Forests and Range holds responsibility for most forestry planning and management requirements.
Disturbance to the soil in the net area to be reforested resulting from the construction of temporary access structures or gouges, ruts, scalps or compacted areas resulting from forestry activities. Without rehabilitation, disturbed sites often have reduced soil productivity and may not provide optimum growing conditions for new trees. For that reason, maximum allowable amounts of soil disturbance are set in regulation.
SPECIES AT RISK
A species that is extirpated, endangered, threatened, or of special concern.
STATUTE: A formal written enactment of a legislative body (e.g., the provincial legislature or federal Parliament).
An official with the authority to make a decision under an Act or regulations, such as a district manager or a designated official from one of the three ministries.
The range of healthy, well-spaced, acceptable trees required to establish a free-growing stand or to meet the residual stand requirements following an intermediate cutting or the harvesting of special forest products.
A watercourse formed when water flows either continuously or intermittently between continuous definable channel boundaries. The stream banks may be discontinuous on smaller streams, but the channel is detectable throughout the extent of the reach.
The rising ground bordering a stream channel. Typically extends from the outer edge of the unvegetated channel to 1-to-2 metres into the riparian zone.
The bottom of the stream below the usual water surface.
The stream bed and banks formed by fluvial processes, including deposited organic debris.
A party asserted to have failed to comply with the Forest and Range Practices Act, (FRPA) such as a government official or tenure holder. (Note that not all government agencies can be subjects, only those with authority in Parts 2-5 of FRPA).
A unit of the Biogeoclimatic Ecological Classification with less climatic variability and a narrower geographic distribution than the zone. Subzones are distinguished by a unique composition of plant species. They are climatically based and represent precipitation and temperature regimes.
A state or process that can be maintained indefinitely. The principles of sustainability integrate three closely interlined elements-the environment, the economy and the social system-into a system that can be maintained in a healthy state indefinitely.
Preservation and protection of diverse ecosystems-the soil, plants, animals, insects and fungi while maintaining the forest's productivity.
SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT
Management regimes applied to forest land which maintain the productive and renewal capacities as well as the genetic, species and ecological diversity of forest ecosystems.
A method of forest management that calls for an approximate balance between net growth and amount harvested.
A tree or tall-shrub dominated wetland with mineral or occasionally peat soils that experiences periodic flooding and nearly permanent subsurface water flow. The waters are nutrient rich.
An individual, group, or company that holds a licence agreement as defined in section 3 of the Range Act.
Treading underfoot; the damage to plants or soil brought about by movements or congestion of animals.
TREE FARM LICENCE (TFL)
TFLs are privately managed Sustained Yield Units. TFLs are designed to enable owners of Crown-granted forestlands and old temporary tenures or the timber licences, which replace them; to combine these with enough unencumbered Crown land to form self-contained sustained yield management units. These licences commit the licensee to manage the entire area under the general supervision of the Forest Service. Cutting from all lands requires Forest Service approval through the issuance of cutting permits. TFLs should not be confused with Certified Tree Farms under the Taxation Act; though some Certified Tree Farm land (Crown-granted) may comprise a part of the TFL. A TFL has a term of 25 years.
A professional climber who ascends trees to prepare them for helicopter harvest as part of the process of single stem harvesting.
Act of turning livestock out on the range at the beginning of the grazing season.
Any plants growing under the canopy formed by other plants, particularly herbaceous and shrub vegetation under a tree canopy.
UNDESIRABLE PLANT SPECIES
Species that contribute negatively to the management objectives.
Land elevated above a riparian area.
The proportion of current year’s forage production that is consumed or destroyed by grazing animals. May refer either to a single species or to the vegetation as a whole.
The plants or plant parts, living or dead, which protect the ground surface. Cover may also refer to the area of ground cover by plants of one or more species.
VISUAL LANDSCAPE INVENTORY
Classifies the provincial land base into visually sensitive areas and areas that are not visually sensitive.
VISUAL QUALITY OBJECTIVE
A resource management objective established by the district manager or contained in a higher level plan that reflects the desired level of visual quality based on the physical characteristics and social concern for the area.
VISUALLY SENSITIVE AREAS
Are areas that could cause concern if forest practices or other resource development activities alter their visual appearance.
A total area of land above a given point on a waterway that contributes runoff water to the flow at that point.
1) A plant growing where it is not wanted; 2) A plant that interferes with management objectives for a given area of land at a given point in time.
Areas characterized by soils that are usually saturated and support mostly water-loving plants.
A class of wetland having mineral soils which are periodically saturated. Dominant vegetation consists of water-tolerant grasses, sedges, rushes, and forbs.
WILDLAND URBAN INTERFACE (WUI)
An area where human development meets or is intermingled with forest and grassland fuel types.
Areas of land and water that support specific wildlife or groups of wildlife.
Standing trees that are resistant to breaking or windthrow from the wind.
An accumulation of slash, branchwood and debris on a harvested cutblock created to clear the ground for regeneration. Also refers to an accumulation of fill or surfacing material left on the road shoulder as a result of grading operations.
A tree, or trees, uprooted by the wind.
The wooded portion of a private property upon which small-scale forestry operations are carried out.
An agreement entered into under Part 3, Division 5 of the Forest Act. It is similar to a Tree Farm Licence but on a smaller scale, and allows for small-scale forestry to be practiced in a described area (Crown and private) on a sustained or perpetual yield basis.